Yet in 1514, Cardinal Thomas Wolsey extended its control of government, Katharine had reason to be suspicious. Happiness golden years with Henry wearing thin. His father had betrayed her husband with contempt, and openly, treating both children as little more crazy. It was the best ambassador of his father, rashly pressing its claim to Henry, using the natural affection between husband and wife to urge the alliance with Spain. She felt the sting of betrayal of his father. He had lied, she misled and deceived her into betraying her husband. It was clear that his primary loyalty must be to Henry and the English people, she would never trust again Ferdinand. In 1514, King returned to his home and his advisers told him that great treasure Henry VII was quick low. War with France was too costly to continue. Henry had seized Tournai and was the competent authority Wolsey his bishop, but the larger struggle was not an option. In this, the king surprisingly agreed. He had won his share of glory – at least for now – and it would be enough. And treachery of Ferdinand was greeted with an appropriate response. Henry’s younger sister Mary, the finest Tudor children, had been betrothed to the nephew of Ferdinand, Duke of Burgundy, but now Henry has made peace with France and promised Mary to Louis XII, three times her age and suffering from gout.
Henry’s new willingness for peace with France, the traditional enemy of England, was encouraged by the Spanish duplicity. But itportrait of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey is also due to the growing influence of Wolsey. Derision, Master Chaplain “by jealous of his influence, Wolsey had a humble beginnings and, like most talented and ambitious men from poor families, he used the church to advance in society. He attended Oxford and has shown such promise that he made steward of Magdalen College, then chaplain of the Archbishop Deane. In 1507, thirty years now and well connected, he became chaplain to Henry VII. On the accession of Henry VIII, Wolsey received a seat on the board and was chaplain of the king.
This position has allowed personal contact with the young, impressionable monarch. He accompanied Henry to France during the successful campaign of 1513, where he was made bishop of Tournai, and their close relationship has strengthened. Henry Wolsey appreciated the dedication of administrative details and hard work. And both Fox and Warham, both senior advisors he inherited from his father Henry, Wolsey considered their protege. They were very happy to retire to their dioceses, leaving the young man to deal with the headstrong and reckless young king. One can easily sympathize with Warham and Fox has the personality of Henry VIII was very different from his father. The most obvious difference is that he spent money with the same passion that his father had collected.
But it is important to remember that Henry VIII never completely abandoned his power to Wolsey, if gossip Court believes otherwise. He read news of the cardinal and appeared well informed about foreign affairs and when ambassadors. In addition, Henry had a lifelong love of keeping his subjects, nobles and ordinary on their toes, he enjoyed delivering his taste for surprises. At banquets, it shows itself in his passion for elaborate costumes in which his identity was hidden. His subjects, which implies costume hid their king, to the delight of all. Once, he and several courtiers dressed as Robin Hood and his band of outlaws and then divided into apartments Katharine of Aragon.
The queen, who used to these antics, aptly played the game, but several of her ladies were terrified. In Section Primary Sources, you can read about the first meeting of Henry with his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves, he disguised himself at their first meeting, to the great amusement of his noble and confusion of the lady. Sometimes this love of surprise – to keep his family on an uneven keel – was downright cruel. Later, he can plan his advisers arrest of Thomas Cranmer, to say the archbishop of their plan in secret. When the soldiers arrived, they were openly embarrassed and upset when Cranmer has revealed his knowledge of the plan and the royal pardon. And his sixth and last wife, Katherine Parr, was also surprised. Walking in his garden with Henry, she was accosted by soldiers with the intention of his arrest. Their mandate was signed by Henry himself. But when they tried to seize the queen, Henry has cursed them, beat several of them on the head and shoulders, and demanded that they beg forgiveness of Katharine. One can imagine the confusion of the guards.
All these instances serve to illustrate the desire of Henry to stay in control, to hold absolute power in his hands forever. As king, he could give orders, but he was also privileged to immediately change his mind without caring to consult anyone. His will was law. And he demonstrated his power by doing exactly as he liked, oftimes choose the perfect time to start everyone off guard and show his absolute power. It may seem irrational to his contemporaries, and also for us, but it was quite an effective policy. This meant that nobody ever really knew where they were with the king. And so, not knowing his true feelings, they were more willing to sycophantically fawn on him and seek his approval.
This strain character of the king was perhaps a little lighter in the early years of his reign, but, like most of the qualities of Henry, he quickly developed a casting ugly. Mutability was certainly recognized by Wolsey, and famous by Sir Thomas More, and later led to the downfall of the Cardinal. But in the early years of their relationship, as the genius of Wolsey for administration and diplomacy led him to amass great wealth and titles, the men got along surprisingly well. This continued for more than a dozen years. In 1514, Wolsey was called Archbishop of York, and in 1515 he became cardinal and lord chancellor, and in 1518 he was appointed papal legate. As Archbishop of York, he lived in York Palace and most outside observers was the true seat of government power. Messengers rose steadily between York and Henry palace.
For many years, both Wolsey and Henry focused on foreign affairs. Wolsey was a Francophile and the desired peace between traditional enemies. He used the perfidious behavior Ferdinand encouraged a marriage between the sister of Henry VIII and Louis XII. This policy pro-France has placed naturally at odds with Katharine of Aragon. Although it acknowledged the betrayal of his father and protected by his marriage does not claim more pressing in Spanish, she was still the daughter of the King of Spain. Wolsey did not trust him, which was not surprising. Katharine developed a natural antipathy to the cardinal as well. She was a deeply pious woman, more especially as she aged. She thought Wolsey too worldly to be a man of the church. She encouraged advisers like Thomas More and John Fisher, bishop of Rochester, men whose devotion to the church was as passionate as his own. She was also angry that his role of confidant and adviser Henry has been slowly stolen by Wolsey. Katharine was jealous of the influence of Cardinal with her husband, especially since it meant a further fall of its own influence. The king is no longer being foreign ambassadors to his apartment and no longer seek his opinions. It was as if the betrayal of his father’s cause. Wolsey was the diplomat, able to flatter the queen when they met, but their mutual dislike was open knowledge at the court.
In December 1514, Katharine suffered a miscarriage, it was his fourth, and third son. It is particularly galling to her since the beginning of that year Henry made his first public mistress. It was not a rake, and certainly less victimized by the desire that his fellow monarchs, particularly Francis I of France. But the Kings to take mistresses and around New Year 1514, Henry’s eyes were caught by Elizabeth Blount. She was the cousin of Lord Mountjoy and one of Katharine ladies. Bessie was pretty and lively, and very happy to bask in the attention of the king. And she had her attention for several years, which proves once again streak monogamous Henry. And he has not neglected his wife. On February 18, 1516, luck and Katharine Henry has changed. Their only surviving child, a princess named Marie, was born. She was healthy and survived some difficult months in early childhood. Henry was proud, if disappointed, and told the ambassador: “We are both young. If it was a girl this time, by the grace of God the son will follow. ”
One can easily understand the disappointment of Henry. It was a good father of Mary in the early years, proudly wearing its subject and show visitors. But he was perhaps aware that time was running out for a male heir to be born. There are indications that he has explored the idea of divorce Katharine as early as 1518. An English courtier had supposedly come to the Vatican for an exploratory mission earlier this year. And gossip about miscarriage Katharine had spread through the English court from 1514.
Henry was always affectionate with Katharine, and they remained intimate for several years after the birth of Mary, as evidenced by further pregnancies. But perhaps the flower of the relationship had disappeared. His wife looks older than his age, his body worn out by incessant pregnancies and births. It is by nature a reserved person and serious, his mind remained constantly on the failure of his most important duty as queen. On November 10, 1518, her last child – a daughter – was born and died. Special summoned doctors from Spain arrived to help redesign the queen. They were unsuccessful. Henry has publicly promised to lead a crusade against the miniature portrait of Henry Fitzroy, illegitimate son of Henry VIII Turks if God granted him a son.
But it should not be, at least not with Katharine of Aragon. In 1519, Elizabeth Blount, his young mistress, gave him a healthy son. Henry was ecstatic. Here is the proof that the king could father son. Henry named the boy after himself, giving it the name “Fitzroy”, the traditional name of royal bastards. It would soon be rich so many titles on the boy that Katharine felt it necessary to remind him that Princess Mary was his heir. Henry publicly chastised and, in a fit of pique, sent several of his favorite officers return to Spain.
We are now at an important moment in what would be called “king’s great matter” (Henry’s attempt to annul his marriage to Katharine.) Birth proved Fitzroy Henry could have a son, and nobody can deny fertility Katharine. It is doubtful Henry never blamed for the failure to produce a male heir after watching the endless cycle of pregnancy and prayer. But why had he and Katharine were unable to produce a son living together? Naturally, the king’s mind turned to God. It must be the will of God they had no male heir. But what had he done to offend God? Henry searched for an answer, and soon found it quite easily. In the Bible, Leviticus XVIII, 16 clearly states “Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy brother’s wife: it is the nakedness of thy brother.” And later, in Chapter XX, ‘If a man takes his brother’s wife, it is an unclean thing: he hath uncovered his brother’s nakedness: they shall be childless. What could be clearer? The Bible itself has condemned his marriage to Katharine. dispensation from the Pope does not make sense.
And so began one of the most fascinating decades in English history.